Short biographies of wealthier owners


The figures here must be used with caution: the valuers' object in listing proprietors was to indicate who was liable if rates could not be obtained from an occupier; they had no reason to enquire beyond the tenant's immediate superior, still less to distinguish life-interests from absolute title. Nevertheless, some interesting features emerge.

First, the major proprietors are drawn predominantly from the leading merchants and the 'shopocracy' of the city; outsiders are conspicuous by their absence.

Secondly, much development of housing had taken place on coherent blocks of land which often had the proprietor's residence or business premises within them. Some of these houses were in courts; some had an independent street frontage. The houses in courts, a hundred years on, were reputed as slums. We must be careful not to project this back to 1828. If Green's Court had Alderman Green's own house on one side, we should not be surprised if the court was kept clean and tidy because Mrs Green made sure of it, and if the families attended chapel on Sundays because Alderman Green expected it.

Thirdly, there are hints of what one might term urban feudalism. How many of Alderman Green's tenants were employed by Alderman Green? How many of the houses were understood to be tied cottages? When we find business premises let to someone in a related trade to the landlord's, was the transaction an arm's-length one, or was there an understanding that, for example, a baker who rented his shop from a miller would buy his flour from him? There is scope for further work here, which needs to draw on wider sources.

The 'modern' approach to housing development has been much studied in the context of London terraces. A ground landlord, often a great estate, would grant building leases for two or three houses at a time, on generous terms but with the condition that houses of a certain type and value were to be erected within (say) two years, after which the ground-rent rose substantially. Builders, often carpenters by trade, would take on such leases, finance the construction of the houses, and sell them on. The Valuation shows signs of such an approach developing in Lincoln. Ironically, the best example is formed by St Michael's Terrace and Mauds Hill Terrace, in an open layout that avoided the formation of the dreaded 'miasma' - and which George Giles chose in 1847 to illustrate the sanitary problems on the slopes rising to the upper city. Perhaps the old ways of doing things were not so bad, after all.

The details below have been assembled without access to archival material; readers who can provide salient information or correct errors are invited to contact the webmaster.

Alphabetical List of Proprietors > £100

[revised 8/6/2020]

Allison, John £240

Allison lived on Far Newland and is described by Pigot as a brick & tile maker. Perhaps he made a practice of taking some of the houses a builder had developed in lieu of payment for his bricks: certainly he had a varied collection of property around Lincoln.

Barker, Robert £163

A non-resident with a common name - so difficult to identify.

Beard, Anne £297

Three brothers, Herbert Greensmith Beard, Samuel Beard, and Neville Fallows Beard grew up at Breadsall Priory outside Derby; their father acted as guardian to his orphaned nephew and niece, who would inherit the property. Thus it was expected that the brothers would need to make their own way in the world, and by 1790[1] they had set up in partnership at Lincoln as coal merchants. It might seem an odd move, as the family had no previous connection with Lincoln, but their mother came from Staveley, and the opening of the Chesterfield Canal had made it possible to export its coal to places like Lincoln. The brothers owned four narrow-boats operating via the Chesterfield Canal to Lincoln and, from the one transaction we know about[2] they seem to have dealt with large customers wanting a fixed-price contract for multiple boatloads spread across the season. Presumably their links to Staveley helped them buy on a similar basis. They also operated a ketch trading to Shardlow, which was the place where goods were regularly transshipped for the Trent & Mersey Canal. In 1795 they were the only merchants trading to Shardlow - pioneers in a trade which would become more important after 1800.

As matters turned out, the brothers did inherit Breadsall Priory, along with other property in Derbyshire, but they sold most of it in 1799.[3] It may have financed a change in their business: they became integrated corn and coal merchants and, like most of the other big Lincoln merchants, added malting to their activities. The proceeds of the Derbyshire property may also have financed grand Lincoln houses for Herbert and Samuel. These had waterside coal yards and maltings behind them, but in other respects they could rival the best houses of uphill Lincoln: Herbert's house in Newland had a room fitted out as a library, which is not something of which many merchants could boast.

The partnership was dissolved in 1802, after which Herbert and Samuel traded separately. Neville Fallows Beard seems not to have taken an active part in business thereafter, but remained in Lincoln.[4]

Samuel having died in 1820, he was succeeded by his son, confusingly named Herbert Greensmith Beard, who was in partnership with his uncle until 1825, when he withdrew from business[5] and became a gentleman-farmer. The uncle died in 1827 and it is his widow Anne, née Turner,[6] who appears as proprietor in the Valuation, but she was already preparing to move out[7].

A family dispute over the inheritance resulted in two Chancery suits, Beard vs Pinder and Walesby vs Beard, which continued until at least 1838.[8] The Lincoln properties were put up for sale by order of the court.

[1] Derbs RO D6759/1/7 of 30.11.1790 refers to HGB of Stonecliff Hall, Darley, SB & NFB of Lincoln.

[2] Stamford Mercury, 19.3.1802.

[3] Earlier sales and a mortgage to Richard Arkwright of 1792 for £8000 may have financed their initial establishment. [Derbs RO D504/121/6/21-22]

[4] The Australian National Library has a book, The conduct of the Dutch relating to their breach of treaties with England : particularly their breach of the articles of capitulation, for the surrender of Surinam, in 1667, and their oppressions committed upon the English subjects in that colony : with a full account of the case of Jeronimy Clifford, 1760, inscribed "H.G.B. jun and Neville Fallows Beard".

[5] Stamford Mercury, 11.11.1825.

[6] Of Edwinstowe, Notts. Samuel married an Elizabeth Turner 3 years later in 1789, perhaps a sister.

[7] Stamford Mercury, 10.8.1827

[8] TNA C 13/934/15 and C 13/1023/29. Anna Maria Walesby appears to have been the widowed sister of the deceased, living in the Close with her two daughters Hannah Neville and Sarah, and claimed a life-interest in property at Breadsall. [Wm Walesby of Lincoln, surgeon, m Anna Maria Beard at Breadsall, 9.4.1792.]

Bedford, William £287

Pigot records Bedford as 'gent', so he is a man of independent means. He lived on Lindum Hill, and seemed to have engaged in considerable property development within Lincoln. Some of that property was held in conjunction with John Bedford, a chemist (which may indicate the father's business) and with Rev RW Willson, which suggests a family connection.

Blyth, Henry £123

Henry Blyth was a grocer. He owned a site in St Mary le Wigford, part of which had been let to a grocer - perhaps it was the erstwhile Blyth shop; but he rented a much larger property in St Martin's near the King's Arms Yard.

Brocklesby, William £129

William Brocklesby was an interesting character, of a good family but needing a means of supplementing his income. His was exceedingly fond of shooting, and appears to have been a friend of that keen sportsman and wealthy baronet Sir James Sutton, who leased Sudbrook Holme for much of the 1820s.

Brocklesby was an effective organiser and found an opportunity to put his skills to good use during the Napoleonic wars as adjutant to the local militia, rising in the process to the rank of Captain. The defeat of Napoleon brought this to an end but on the death in 1819 of J T Bell, the former Town Clerk, Brocklesby was able to acquire the office for licensing hawkers and pedlars. Two years later, he was elected a surveyor to the Lincoln Turnpike Trust. Then, in 1828, the Lighting and Paving Act which occasioned this valuation also created a requirement for a Surveyor of the City's new watchmen; Brocklesby offered his services and was elected. Two years later, he would resign his post as surveyor of highways to become Gaoler at Lincoln Castle. He would now find himself supervising an even lower class of person than the hawkers and road-labourers he had been dealing with hitherto, but the salary of £370 was no doubt an important consideration, and he seems to have improved the title somewhat in that he would often be referred to as the Governor of Lincoln Castle.

In 1828, he was still occupying a £20 house on Bailgate, facing St Mary Magdalene's church. Like so many others in this list, he had engaged in property development, building a long terrace of fairly modest houses on a site in front of the present railway station.

Brown, Catherine £128

Mrs Catherine Brown is listed by Pigot among the gentry. Her property lay on the High Street, opposite St Mary le Wigford church, where she lived, sandwiched between her two major tenants, the Pack Horse public house and a grocer.

Bullen, Philip, £209

The centre of the Bullen empire was StSwithins P02, plots 5-8 (now the car park behind the YMCA). Prior to 1745, this was the base for the Boyce family of watermen; in fact it is the only waterman's premises from the period before the enlargement of the Fossdyke that has been identified. In that year, Richard Bullen, maltster & brewer, bought it from the Boyce heiress - albeit part continued to be leased to a waterman.[1]

The next two generations operated a combined enterprise as maltsters, brewers (wholesale as well as having their own public houses) and carriers by water. They probably pioneered the shipping of malt to the West Riding of Yorkshire, which was a lucrative trade until lots of others took it up. In the course of this period they acquired an estate of 550 acres at Greetwell verging on country-house status. When it was sold in 1843, the Mansion was described as having a library, as well as dining- and drawing-rooms, along with a hot-house and pleasure-grounds. It is a sign of their increasing gentrification that one member of the third generation went to Oxford and became a clergyman, although his career was short and was probably blighted by poor health.

A series of deaths in the family left Philip Bullen at the age of 38 practically the only survivor resident in Lincoln. He chose to retire to the Greetwell estate, living the life of a gentleman-farmer. It is striking how this elevated his social standing: in 1799 he was Sergeant-Major in the Lincoln Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by Richard Ellison III; by 1804 he was its Captain-Commandant.

He continued to be actively involved in Lincoln affairs, leasing his former business premises rather than selling them. The problem was that what was state-of-the-art in 1800 was looking rather outdated by 1828. But by this date his Lincoln interests were relatively unimportant to him financially, with a capital value of around £4000. In contract, the Greetwell estate was worth almost £15,000.

[1] LAO Hill 4/4

Brown, Catherine £128

Mrs Catherine Brown is listed by Pigot among the gentry. Her property lay on the High Street, opposite St Mary le Wigford church, where she lived, sandwiched between her two major tenants, the Pack Horse public house and a grocer.

Bullen, Philip, £209

Alderman Henry Bullen, who died May 1799, was a maltster, brewer, corn-factor, coal-merchant, and carrier by water. His sons Philip and John carried on the business. John withdrew or died, and then in 1800 Philip retired from business to become a farmer at Greetwell (and renting a further farm at Branston). It is striking how this elevated his social standing: in 1799 he was Sergeant-Major in the Lincoln Volunteer Cavalry, commanded by Richard Ellison III; by 1804 he was its Captain-Commandant. His former business premises in Lincoln were let to a succession of tenants: first James Cooling & John Winn; then, from 1815 to 1818, John Coupland. By 1828, John Rudgard was leasing the brewery. What thirty years earlier had been an integrated business empire gives the impression of being a collection of out-dated properties ripe for redevelopment.

Bunyan, Robert £112

Robert Bunyan was a partner in Bunyan & Seward, listed by Pigot as corn & seed merchants, but seemingly also trading in wine. He also had scattered properties around the city, and had been developing at least one of them for housing.

Capp, John £258.

John Capp of Swallowbeck was developing Portland Place in St Mary's Street, a terrace of ten £16 houses just west of Sincil St, described in 1823 as "neat little boxes, well adapted for small genteel families" [SM 18.1.1828]. He is the same man as the "John Cappe" listed as an owner-occupier in PetGP01; his occupation there was probably a temporary matter: the house had previously been tenanted and he was seeking a new tenant in January 1828.

He also had stables, etc, in PetGP01. These were described in 1829 [SM 29.5.1829] as accommodating 17 or 18 horses and having been used for Capp's coach-horses. The man could scarcely have maintained so large a number of coach horses. The Capps had been prominent in Lincoln business in the previous century, trading as fellmongers. John Capp appears a little like Philip Bullen, a man who has retired from an inherited business to pursue a gentry life-style, but retains his Lincoln property and (in this case) is trying to redevelop it.

Carter, Rev Wm £111

Occupied a £48 house in the Close of which he was proprietor - presumably lessee of the Dean & Chapter and was proprietor of another substantial house immediately south of the Close wall. He is not readily associated with either of the William Carters in CCED.

Cartledge, Alderman Page £199

Described by Pigot as grocer (of High St - he had formerly been in partnership with George Marshall) and wine & spirit merchant (of Corporation Lane). By 1828, Alderman George Cartledge seems to have taken over the grocer's shop. Page Cartledge also owned a coal yard on Waterside South (possibly a sign that he had traded in coal in the past) and extensive house property there. He died in 1837.

Cartledge, Sylvanus & Job, Assignees of £528

Sylvanus Cartledge and Job Cartledge, merchants, were declared bankrupt in 1827. They owned a malt-kiln, miscellaneous commercial property, and a large number of public houses Legal control of these passed to assignees appointed by the Bankruptcy Court to protect the interests of their creditors.

Cookson, Ambrose, MD £215

Physician, occupying a large house on the south side of Eastgate; also served as physician to the House of Industry. Proprietor of other property, mostly in Langworth Gate.

Corporation of Lincoln £172

This is an artificial figure which excludes certain public buildings, though it does include The Reindeer, which accounts for no less than £120 of the total. It also excludes the extensive property held on beneficial leases granted by the Corporation.

Coupland, John £115

Coupland was a coal merchant, maltster and corn-miller (in partnership with Charles Seely). His matkiln in St Botolph's was the largest in Lincoln and was served by a private cut from the upper Witham. It was advertised for sale in May 1828: in 1825 he had acquired a colliery in Derbyshire and this was perhaps proving unexpectedly costly.

Cuttill, James Bartholomew £107

Cuttill's father, also James, had been a coal and timber merchant running boats to Hull. A daughter married a mast-maker of that town. He employed a coal 'meter' (specially licensed to measure deliveries) and died in 1812, leaving an estate of £12,000.

The son continued the business and expanded the carrying business to Horncastle. One night in 1822, there was a stir in the house because an intruder was thought to have got in. The erstwhile meter went upstairs to warn Mr Cuttill, who mistook him for the intruder and ran him through with a sword. He gave up business in 1826 and in 1828 was recorded visiting the spa at Askern near Doncaster. Perhaps he had moved there for a time. But by 1830 he was back at his house in Newland. The celebrated balloonist, Mr Green - whose ascent from Vauxhall in 1836 features in The Ingoldsby Legends - went up twice in 1830 from Cuttill's paddock. On the second occasion JB Cuttill accompanied him and they were carried as far as Caistor.

Dawber, Wm £225

Dawber was a maltster, owning his own premises in Newland, valued at £78. He seems to have acquired the old Militia depot nearby, besides other property.

Dean & Chapter £242

As with the Corporation, this is an artificial figure which excludes their extensive property on which they had granted beneficial leases.

Dudding, John, Esq £109

An attorney, of Silver Street.

Empson, Mrs Ann £108

Proprietor and occupier of Cottesford Place (£68) with other property scattered about the city, she is listed by Pigot among the gentry & clergy.

Fardell, John, Esq £193

Listed by Pigot among the gentry & clergy. His house (£82) was on the north side of Eastgate, west of St Peter's church; the extensive grounds can be seen on Padley's 1842 plan.

Featherby, Robert, Alderman £271

Although listed by Pigot among the gentry & clergy, Robert Featherby was still in partnership with George Sprague as an ironmonger.

Foster, Charles £310

Charles Foster senior and his brother Thomas were in partnership as builders; and most of the house property with 'Heirs of Chas Foster' in the Proprietor column arises from that partnership, which was only dissolved in 1822 when Charles senior felt that death was close. Actually, death was closer than he supposed, and he expired after dictating a codicil to his will but before it had been read over and signed. Charles Foster junior was his eldest son. After the funeral, he secretly destroyed the will and codicil, being unhappy with his treatment in them; but he destroyed them by tearing them into small pieces and scattering them to the winds. The winds being only light, most of the pieces were recovered the following day from the surrounding fields. This may in part explain why 'Heirs of Chas Foster' still appears, or it may be that this property was held by all the siblings as tenants in common.

Charles junior operated as a corn and coal merchant from the paddock at the back of the Royal Oak, which is where Charles senior had lived; however, in 1827 the granaries were 'newly erected' and it is possible that Charles had only entered the corn & coal trade in that year.

The figure of £310 combines the property of Charles, junior, with that of 'Heirs of Chas Foster'; nevertheless, each by itself would qualify for this list. In addition to his Lincoln houses, Charles senior had property in Haddington and in Thorpe-on-the-Hill, but these were of less value than the Lincoln property.

Fowler, Edward, Esq £127

Proprietor and occupier of a £48 house, probably on the corner of Eastgate and James St, Fowler appears to have been something of a property developer.

Glenn, Jonathan £362

Jonathan Glenn was the proprietor of a block of land straddling the parishes of St Mark and St Peter-at-Gowts and extending both sides of the High Street. Although Pigot lists him solely among the gentry, part of the property in his own occupation included a carpenter's shop, and by 1842 there was a timber yard on his land. His property development included a terrace immediately south of St Mark's church, where JS Padley was living.

Hayward, Charles £497

Charles Hayward was an attorney, of Silver Street, but the family had been Lincoln stonemasons for three generations.[1] His elder brother William had been Surveyor to the Minster; his younger brother was a mason; and the family's influence in the Corporation probably assisted in the accumulation of Corporation leases. So he was well-placed to engage in property development. What is surprising is his catholicity: we find him as proprietor of houses both grand and humble; both Beaumont Fee House (unoccupied) and the Cordwainers' Hall (subdivided). Perhaps this is a sign of what was considered proper behaviour: using influence to obtain a Corporation lease so that one could develop the land oneself was acceptable; obtaining such a lease and granting a sub-lease was not.

[1] There is a family tree in H Colvin, Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600-1840, 1995, 484.

Hewson, Jared £100

Hewson appears in Pigot as Jarrard Hewson, bricklayer, but Jared is the name used in his will. He lived modestly on Waterside South and seems to have developed his properties there with sufficient skill to bring their value up to the round hundred pounds used as the criterion for inclusion here.

Hill, Robert £130

Described by Pigot as 'gentleman' of Minster Yard, Hill seems to have developed a site in St Swithin's for housing.

Hooker, William £149

Hooker, Hill & Co were coal & timber merchants and wharfingers. They ran a weekly boat to Hull and were probably the carrier for miscellaneous merchandise on that route. Development of some of his land for housing had added to William Hooker's total.

Horner, Samuel £109

A cabinet-maker of Castle Hill, Horner owned a couple of other blocks of property in the city.

Huddlestone, William, Alderman £101

Alderman Huddlestone was a coal and corn merchant, who also traded as a maltster. His house and maltings alone, on Waterside South, were valued at £80. Oddly there is no mention of any warehouse. By 1833, the maltkiln was described as 'new' and there were warehouses capable of storing about a year's barley - about 500 tons. Perhaps rebuilding was going on at the time of the valuation.

Jepson, Susannah £100

The valuation implies that Mrs Jepson was in partnership with her son. The son would appear to be Thomas Jepson, described by Pigot as an ironmonger on the High Street. Ironmongers at this date were much more important than in more recent years, selling items like grates and ranges; it would seem from this partnership occupying a nail shop that they made their own nails.

Keyworth, John £125

Born about 1773, the eldest son of a country blacksmith, John Keyworth's prospects in life were greatly enhanced by his aunt having married Joseph Nell, the lock-keeper at Torksey. Nell was in effect Richard Ellison's agent for the northern end of the Fossdyke, and it is probably through acting as Nell's assistant that he came to the notice of Ellison - and also of Michael Pilley, the agent at the Lincoln end, whose daughter he married. Since Pilley's own sons lacked the business sense that had so elevated Pilley, Keyworth became his natural successor, both as Ellison's agent and as lessor of the tolls on the Witham.

Keyworth is also said in 1826 to have been employed by the Smith, Ellison bank but to have been dismissed for 'villainy'. Since he continued as Fossdyke agent, Ellison's faith in him must have been undiminished. There was certainly scope for conflict of interest, because Keyworth, in partnership with his sons, traded in coal, corn and wine, as well as running a maltings.

Unlike most of those on this list, he had no interest in property development. He probably reckoned that he could employ his capital more profitably in his business activities. His address is always given as The Wharf. Granted, the coal business had been moved away from the agent's house, but from 1828 he had the new gas works as his neighbour. As far as is known, he remained there until his death in 1843, keeping a sharp eye on everything that was going on. In contrast, his eldest son, Thomas Michael Keyworth, lost no time in moving uphill to Cottesford Place within a year of his father's death.

Lee, John £308

Lee was a landlord of an extensive spread of houses, generally at the humbler end of the market. His is not recorded as an occupier anywhere: possibly the unoccupied £28 house he owned in St Swithin's had just ceased to be his residence.

Linton, Thomas £123

Thomas Linton seems to have been a carpenter. Carpenters often acted as house-builders, hiring in the other trades as necessary, and it is likely that many of the houses around the city in his ownership had been built by him. His activities in St Michael's parish are particularly instructive, in that the houses he had built - almost certainly in St Michael's Terrace - may be among those pictured in DR Mills, Effluence and Influence, 2015, Fig 3.5. Recent building leases appear to have been granted for a terrace of nine houses; one builder took on a single house, two took on a pair, and Linton took on the other four.

Lowrie, Miss Mary £198

Miss Lowrie occupied a large house (£50) facing the new terrace where JS Padley lived, immediately north of where the Midland Railway would create its station. It looks as though parts of its larger plot had been developed for housing, bringing the total value to £153. She is probably the daughter of Robert Lowrie, an extremely wealthy linen-draper who died in 1810. Miss Mary has also been credited here with a block of property in St Martin's, whose proprietor is described as "Lowrie, __", though it is possible that this is another member of the family.

Mason, Richard, Esq £100

Attorney and Town Clerk, Mason had his office in Guildhall Street. He was also, for reasons unknown, the proprietor and occupier of two houses almost facing each other across the High Street, worth £65 and £35 - so quite substantial.

Mawer & Collingham £164

Mawer & Collingham were Lincoln's leading drapers, with premises valued at £75. They seem to have been preparing for future expansion by buying other property in their block - or perhaps this goes back to a previous owner. At any rate, they were occupying less than half of the property they owned.

Metcalf, Martin £161

Metcalf was based at 'The Sloop' (now the 'Royal William IV') on Brayford North for over 50 years. He described himself as spirit-merchant and his premises as the Newland Cheap Spirit Warehouse, offering a range from 5-year-old Cognac at 32s per gallon to 'very good' gin at 8s 6d. He had a number of sidelines: he seems to have assisted with the sale of nearby properties, and he warehoused corn for others. He also had a coal yard, which was let to Joseph Dickinson. Oddly, Pigot's directory for that year refers to him as a corn and coal merchant; perhaps he sold small quantities of both, but it was not his main business.

Moody, Enos £206

Moody was a Wragby solicitor who, not long after the Valuation, became prone to irascible - well - moods, which tended to enliven proceedings in the magistrates' courts. In 1834, being offended by some remarks that a Canwick man had made to a party assembled in a Wragby house, Moody applied a horse-whip to the man. Six years later, a vendor of plaster busts was perambulating Wragby with his wares displayed on a board on his head. Moody, perhaps irritated by his cries, proceeded to fire a shot-gun with such accuracy that the goods were destroyed without any harm to their vendor. It may be that such behaviour caused his clients to go elsewhere; at any rate, his income ceased to keep in step with his expenditure and in 1842 he had to reach a composition with his creditors. One of those creditors was a plasterer who had undertaken repairs to one of Moody's houses in Lincoln - apparently one of the group PArcP02:nos16-20. It is that report[1] which enables us to identify the proprietor in the valuation with the irascible Wragby solicitor.

[1] Lincs Chronicle 7.6.1844

Nicholson, Richard £181

Nicholson was a grocer, with premises that seem to have been a long burgage plot running back to the Brayford. More than half of this was let, part of a warehouse being occupied by John Slack as a multi-modal transport hub for goods, with various packets setting off by water and a twice-weekly waggon for London.

Oxspring, John £130

John Oxspring, a chymist & druggist of Lincoln, died in 1821 aged 55. He owned extensive property and had bequeathed £1000 to be divided between the Lincoln Lunatic Asylum (The Lawn) and the County Hospital. It would appear from the Valuation that his affairs still had not been sorted out. Of his property, the most remarkable was the Old Factory, which had been established for the manufacture of woollen cloth and was the origin of the Stuff Ball. This had been divided into tenements which seem to have been run in cooperation with one another as a common lodging-house "where vagrants of the lowest kind are entertained". There was considerable prejudice in Lincoln against this establishment and it is interesting that a man noted for the beneficence of his

bequest should have countenanced it; but perhaps he saw it as filling a necessary function without which the vagrants concerned would face even greater hardships.

Parker, John, Esq £133

John Parker must have owned the Spread Eagle site, whose sale in 1829 was a a consequence of his demise; but it has proved difficult to learn anything about the man.

Porter, William £113

Porter owned a block of property in St Mary-le-Wigford, including his house (£42) including workshops, so he was presumably in trade; but the only reference in Pigot is to 'Brown & Porter', tailors and drapers, of St Benedict's. The entry for 'Brown & Porter' lists warehouses but no workshops, so perhaps William Porter was the Porter of this latter partnership and the making-up was done behind his house in St Mary's.

Preston, Alisemon £127

Mrs Preston was a widow, living in St Martin's, where she owned a block of property. In her will (1831) she left £500 to her nephew Edward Clarke of Sheepwash Grange, Canwick. Thomas Preston was Mayor in 1803: is she his widow?

Rudgard, William £168

William Rudgard was a coal & corn merchant, maltster, and proprietor of the Albion Steam Mill, Lincoln's first steam-powered corn-mill. He seems also to have pursued a measure of vertical integration in his ownership of a couple of bakers' shops. He had installed tenants, but one suspects they had no choice about where they bought their flour!

The Senior Vicars £162

The Vicars Choral corporately owned what is now called Vicars' Court. It was divided into four houses - there were only four Vicars at this date along with six humble 'singing men'.

Sibthorp, Charles de Laet Waldo (1783-1855) £102

One of Lincoln's MPs. For a pithy summary one can scarcely improve on the Gentleman's Magazine (1856): "Colonel Sibthorp (as he was always known) was a colourful and preposterous Member, an excessively hirsute man dressed in a regency frock coat, top hat and Wellington boots, who always carried a magnifying glass. Poorly educated (he did not graduate from Oxford), but possessing ‘an acuteness surpassed by few’, he expressed his unshakeable prejudices with an often comical and sometimes offensive bluntness. He became one of the House’s great entertainers and his ‘peculiarities’ were generally indulged." Fuller accounts can readily be found. What is worth remarking here is that Sibthorp is one of only two member of the Lincolnshire gentry in this list.

Skelton, Mary £108

Mary Skelton occupied a modest house next to 'The Magpies' on Broadgate, which she owned. She has been included here on the assumption that she is the 'Skelton' who owned a block of commercial property in St Peter-at-Arches; this assumption is perhaps questionable.

Smith, Ayscough (with alternative spellings) £227

Ayscough Smith, Esq, lived at Leesthorpe Hall, Pickwell, near Melton Mowbray. At first sight it seems odd to find a member of the Leicestershire gentry owning extensive property in Lincoln. The explanation is that Ayscough, christened in 1797 at St Peter-at-Arches, was the son of Tyrwhit Smith, a woolstapler, who served twice as Mayor and died in 1826.

That still leaves the question of how Tyrwhit or his son came to acquire a country house in Leicestershire. We do know that Tyrwhit was involved in a very opaque property deal over a sizeable estate at Newton & Toft, purchased in 1808-9 from Richard Ellison III and subsequently sold in smaller portions. Tyrwhit's stake in that deal is likely to have been of the order of £15,000. Some of that will doubtless have been secured on a mortgage, but there is little doubt that Tyrwhit was a very wealthy man, and his son seems to have preferred the life of a country gentleman to risking his fortune on further deals.

Smith, John £178.

John Smith owned and ran the Monson's Arms, an inn towards the top of the High Street, valued at £60. Whether all other properties in Lincoln owned by 'John Smith' were indeed the property of this John Smith or of one of the other individuals sharing this name is uncertain, so the figure of £169 may be inflated.

St Mark, Parish of £136

A number of the city parishes owned property. As with the Corporation, some were let on beneficial leases, but the valuers took more trouble to record the lessor in such cases - possibly because they did not know whether the leases were at rack rents. One would need to look at the parish accounts to establish what income was received in any one year; nevertheless, the valuation is useful in telling us the location of parish property.

Steel, George, Alderman £175

George Steel was a draper, with premises next to The Reindeer - the city's grandest inn, owned by the Corporation itself. Ownership of a dyehouse by the river, let to a tenant, may possibly indicate that he had in the past done some of his own dyeing.

Stevenson, John £307

John Stevenson & Son were corn & coal merchants at the SE corner of the Brayford. Pigot tells us that the son was also named John and ran the coal side - he seems to have diversified also into spirits - whilst his father handled corn and traded as a maltster. He also had a scatter of other properties around the city.

Swan, Robert, Esq £118

Robert Swan was an attorney who filled an astonishing range of posts: Deputy Registrar to the Bishop and the Dean, Chapter clerk, Registrar to the Archdeacon of Stow, Clerk to the Witham Navigation Company. Not only was he clerk to the magistrates, but he was a Deputy-Lieutenant himself for the Parts of Lindsey. An account of the Swan family and their various houses in Lincoln can be found in issues of The Enquirer.

Trollope Lady £112

Anne, née Thorold, had married Sir John Trollope, 6th bt of Casewick, in 1798. He died in in 1820. Their sixth son, Edward, was the distinguished antiquary (not to be confused with the popular novelist, who was his second cousin). The block of property Lady Trollope owned was based on Eastgate House, which had been built as the town house of the Wrays.

For the details of Lady Trollope's marriage settlement and the settlement of her real property see Cases in Chancery, 1823, Trollope v Linton. In 1828 the house was let, but from the 1840s it was occupied by the couple's fourth son, Alfred.

Trotter, Luke & Co £158

Luke Trotter & Co had a brewery & maltings on a congested site where the Waterside Centre is now, valued at a massive £120. They also owned a couple of public houses and rented a coal yard. There is no reference to their trading as coal merchants so perhaps this was overflow space: certainly breweries used large quantities of coal.

Turner, John £180

John Turner was a grocer in Bailgate, owning a block of property at the corner of Bailgate and Eastgate. There are evidently multiple individuals of this name and at least £30 of his total probably belongs to another of them; but we can be fairly confident he owned property worth between £125 and £150.

Ward, John £124

John Ward had a house, stable and warehouse (£26) at the top of Lindum Hill. It's an odd place for a warehouse, but he seems to be the plasterer of that name appearing in Pigot's directory. Another Ward (Richard) was a bricklayer: one wonders if John Ward acted as a builder in the manner described earlier, taking on the overall direction and letting contracts for the other trades. Certainly we find him as the proprietor of blocks of new houses: three in Bull Ring Terrace, two in Danesgate, which might be the results of his work.

There was a John Ward who kept a school in St Swithin's - Chaunt Enderby Lane, according to Pigot. The total above assumes that these are separate individuals but that all the new houses belonged to the first man.

Welbourn, John £130

Welbourn was a coal & corn merchant and maltster, who was in the process of building new premises (£90) between the High Street and Brayford, near the present level crossing. The premises were advertised for sale in July 1829, so he may have over-reached himself.

Wetherell, Benjamin, heirs of £162

Benjamin Wetherall (sometimes spelled Weatherall, but the form Wetherell found in the Valuation appears to be an error by the surveyors) was a mercer and draper of Lincoln, who retired to a house in the Close and was sufficiently eminent for his death in 1799 to be recorded in the Gentleman's Magazine. His son, another Benjamin, born 1770, took over the business. In 1803, he was commissioned a Captain in the Loyal Lincoln Volunteers (along with Tyrwhit Smith), being described as 'Esquire'. He died the following year and was buried at Canwick with full military honours. His property was left to his five sisters and presumably remained undivided, which is why it is listed in this way.

Also active in Lincoln were Marmaduke and Thomas Wetherell , whose name may have led to the error by the surveyors. Thomas became a tanner and served as mayor. He invested heavily in railway stock during the mania year of 1844, became a director of the Lincoln & Wakefield and subsequently of the Great Northern Railway. So far as is known, these men have no connection with Benjamin Wetherall.

Williamson, Thomas £144

Thomas Williamson was a resident of St Nicholas' parish, where he had been developing a great deal of cottage property. He was elected by the parish to serve as a Lighting & Paving Commissioner, an office he held until 1852. He died June 1853, aged 78.

Willson, Rev John £252

Rev Willson (c1781-1850) owned a variety of scattered property, including the Manor House in Newport. Of the rest, much consists of closes or gardens - which is unusual. In fact, Willson owned over 100 acres of agricultural land in the parishes of St John and St Nicholas.[1] It was presumably inherited from his father, John Willson of Lincoln (later Baumber?). He matriculated at Lincoln College, Oxford, in 1799 and became a fellow there in 1806. Taking Holy Orders was a prerequisite for a fellowship at this date. He received a BD in 1813 so presumably remained at Oxford at least until this date. At his death, he owned Thorpe Hall, South Elkington; but this seems to have been a recent acquisition.

"Rev RW Willson" will also be noted in the valuation, holding property jointly with two of the Bedford family. He was the 3rd son of the builder William Willson - EJ Willson was the eldest son - was a great supporter of Pugin, and became the first RC Bishop of Hobart, Tasmania. No connection is known with Rev John Willson.

[1] SM 30.11.1838.

Winn, F&C £453

Frederick & Charles Winn were brewers and maltsters with their house and brewery where the telephone exchange now stands. They owned numerous public houses, which explains how, jointly, they are the second-largest owner of property in Lincoln.

Winn, John £429

John Winn, likewise, was a brewer and maltster with a portfolio of public houses. He also traded as a coal merchant. He lived on Waterside North, in the same block as F&C Winn.

Winn Thomas £109

Thomas Winn was a draper, and also owned a block of property in St Martin's. Back in 1792, a Thomas Winn was a brewer & maltster of St Swithin's: was he the father of all three of these Winns? There is clearly scope for a fuller study of this prosperous family.

Winter, Thomas Wilson £102

Winter was a wine & spirit merchant, who also traded in timber, with substantial premises on the High Street close to the present level-crossing.

Wood, Isaac, Esq £215

Robert Randes Wood, who died in 1811, was lessee of a valuable block of property on the north side of Castle Hill. He also leased farmland in St John's parish from the Prebend of St John.[1] He bequeathed this property to his brother Isaac, who had been declared in 1801 to be of unsound mind. The property was therefore managed on his behalf by a committee.

[1] See Cases in Chancery, 1838.

Wroot, Henry £111

Wroot was a "Chymist & Druggist" [Pigot] owning a block of property on the west side of the High Street just north of the Silver Street junction.